26 Ağustos 2008 Salı


IntroductionThe United Arab Emirates was established in 1971 as a federation of seven emirates, Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah, Ras al-Khaimah, Ajman, Umm al-Qaiwain and Fujairah. The rulers comprise the Federal Supreme Council, FSC, which elects the country's President and Vice President at five-yearly intervals from amongst its members. HH Sheikh Zayed bin Sultan Al Nahyan, Ruler of Abu Dhabi, has been President since 1971, and HH Sheikh Maktoum bin Rashid Al Maktoum, Ruler of Dubai, has been Vice President (also concurrently Prime Minister) since 1990. The Council of Ministers is chosen by the Prime Minister in consultation with the President, and is the executive arm of Government. The Federal National Council, or parliament, has 40 members, drawn from each of the emirates, and has a legislative and supervisory role and can amend proposed federal legislation. The judicial structure is headed by the Federal Supreme Court. There are also local governments in each of the emirates, while each major urban centre has a Municipality for local affairs. The traditional 'majlis' system of open discussion between the tribal leaders and their people has evolved into an important, although informal, part of the UAE's governing system. Few nations on earth have experienced more complete and far-reaching change over the past few decades than the United Arab Emirates. Today a land of six-lane highways and glittering streams of motorcars, where space-age cities of ivory-white and crystal glass emerge like a mirage from the haze of desert and sea, this federation of seven ancient Emirates - Abu Dhabi, Dubai, Sharjah, Ras a]-Khaimah, Umm al Qawain, Ajman and Fujairah - is not only the world's fourth largest oil-producer, but also its richest state per head of population, and the new commercial hub of the Middle EastYet only fifty years ago, when oil-exploration started, there was no electricity, no plumbing or telephone system, not a single public hospital nor modern school, no bridges, no deep-water harbor, no metalloid roads, no more than a handful of cars and scarcely a building more impressive than the crumbling mud-brick forts and watchtowers of Abu Dhabi and Dubai, where now high-rise stacks, gilded domes and minarets tower over wide boulevards, where cascades of water are flaunted with conspicuous opulence, and where acres of shrubs burgeon on the desert shore, stood sleepy settlements of reed, coral and mud-brick houses, sweltering on sand spits and islands in the most ferocious summer heat.Life on the Trucial Coast - as it was known until the 1970s - and in its hinterland, was one of considerable hardship. In the towns, fresh water was scarcely available and often had to be drawn by oxen from deep wells, or even brought in barrels from neighboring islands by dhow.Tribesmen would harvest the unreliable winter rains by stretching a sail with a hole in its center between two poles, and in the merciless heat of the Arabian summer would trap the cooling winds by the ingenious use of wind-towers made of sackcloth or cotton. On the sun-blasted terraces of the Hajar Mountains, subsistence farmers eked out a bitter existence, and in the interior the hardy Bedouin scoured the dunes of the great Empty Quarter for pasture. In the hot months, members of these various groups would come together to work as divers in the pearl-yielding oyster beds which flourished in the warm, shallow waters of the Gulf For almost three millennia the economy of this region was bound up with the pearling fleet, culminating in a boom that was only ended by the invention, in the 1920s of the cultured pearl.Despite its harsh climate, civilization has flourished in this region since the earliest times. At Jebel Hafit, near al-Ain, lie the remains of a settlement dating back more than five thousand years; at Hili, not far away, have been found pillbox-shaped tombs of dressed masonry so finely wrought that archaeologists believe they may be connected with the ancient land of Magan, mentioned in ancient Sumerian texts as a land of fabulous wealth, the source of copper, minerals and semi-precious stonesCountryUnited Arab Emirates, federation of seven independent states lying along the east central coast of the Arabian Gulf.The states which include Abu Dhabi (capital of the UAE), Dubai, Al Sharjah, Ras Al Khaimah, Ajman, Umm Al Quwain, and Al Fujairah, bounded on the north by the Arabian Gulf, on the east by Sultanate of Oman, and on the west by Qatar and Saudi Arabia. The total area of the UAE is about 83,600 sq. km (with a total of 200 islands) .The area of the U.A.E. excepting the islands is about 77,700 square kilometers and among the G.C.C. states it is the third largest after Saudi Arabia & Oman. United Arab Emirates is a member of the Gulf Co-operation Council (G.C.C.).HistoryOn December 2, 1971, the seven states became independent as the United Arab Emirates. President, His Highness Sheikh Zayed Bin Sultan Al Nahyan who is also Ruler of Abu Dhabi has devoted much of his attention in the intervening years to the development of the federation of the United Arab Emirates.Each of the states has its own ruler, together they comprise the highest body of the federal government, the Supreme Council of Rulers. The council elects from its members a president and vice president. The federation is also governed by a prime minister and a 40 member consultative assembly called the Federal National Council.Population & ReligionThe population of the UAE is estimated to be 2.94 million, with a growth rate of around 6.5 per cent a year.This is expected to slow to 2.9 per cent by the year 2005, when the population will number around 3.48 million. UAE citizens account for a little over 20 per cent of the population, with the rest coming from the rest of the Arab world, the Indian sub-continent, the Far East, Europe and elsewhere. The national language is Arabic, although English and several Asian languages are widely used, particularly in commerce. Islam is thg state religion. The main population centres are the cities of Abu Dhabi (the capital) and Dubai.A recent study reveals that the workforce in the UAE has grown from 288,414 in 1975, to 1,378,390 in 1998. The wholesale and retail sector account for the largest proportion of the workforce, followed by the construction sector.The country religion is Islam and official spoken language is Arabic, although English is widely spoken.Climatic ConditionsThe UAE lies in the arid tropical zone extending across Asia and northern Africa, however the Indian Ocean has a strong influence on the climatic conditions in the area, since the country borders both the Arabian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman. This explains why high temperatures in summer are always accompanied by high humidity along the coast. Noticeable variations in climate occur between the coastal regions, the deserts of the interior and mountainous areas.Between the months of November and March a moderate, warm climate prevails during the day at an average temperature of 26°C, and a slightly cooler climate prevails throughout the night at an average temperature of 15°C. The humidity tends to rise in the summer months, between June and August. Prevailing winds, influenced by the monsoons, vary between south or southeast, to west or north to northwest depending upon the season and location. Average rainfall is low at less than 6.5 centimeters annually and more than half of the average rainfall occurs in December and JanuaryUAE CurrencyDirhams and fils are the units of currency with 100 fils to the Dirham (Dh). The Dirham is tied to the US Dollar at a steady exchange rate of $US 1= Dh 3.671. Banks usually give the best rates on foreign currency exchange but hotels and airports are often quicker and are open outside banking hours. Money changers tend to have a wider range of currencies but their rates may be higher. Exchange rates are published daily.TelephoneTelecommunications throughout the UAE are modern and efficient. International Direct Dialing is available to most countries. Local telephone calls are free. Local and international dialing codes may be obtained by dialing the operator on 181.International areas codes of UAE 00971 + Abu Dhabi 02Dubai 04Al Sharjah 06Ras al Khaimah 07Ajman 06Umm al Quwain 06Al Fujairah 09

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